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Tea Culture 茶文化

 茶文化

Tea Culture

茶文化是一种沏茶、赏茶、闻茶、饮茶、品茶长期以来不断完善的一种习惯,这种习惯慢慢地变成大家一种认可的信仰,从而形成了一种在中国文化范畴之内的文化现象。

Tea culture is a practice of continuous improvement for making tea, appreciating tea, smelling tea, drinking tea and tasting tea. This practice has gradually developed into a generally accepted principle and hence formed a cultural phenomenon within Chinese culture.

茶文化是以茶为载体,并通过这个载体来传播各种文化,是茶与文化的有机融合,这包含和体现一定时期的物质文明和精神文明。茶文化是茶艺与精神的结合,并通过茶艺表现精神。茶道即是茶艺与精神的完美结合,它通过品茶活动来表现一定的礼节、人品、意境、美学观点和精神思想。中国茶道主要讲究五境之美,即茶叶、茶水、火候、茶具、环境。

Tea culture has tea as its carrier, via which all kinds of cultures are spread. As a combination of the tea and culture, tea culture contains and reflects the material and spiritual civilizations of a certain period. Tea culture is also a unity of art of tea and human spirits, where human spirits are expressed through art of tea. Tea ceremony is a perfect combination of art of tea and human spirits, and the activities of tea tasting are used to express certain manners, personal characters, artistic conceptions, aesthetic viewpoints and spirits. Chinese tea ceremony focuses on five stages of beauty, namely the beauties in tea, in tea water, in timing, in tea ware and in tea-drinking background.

中国茶道的具体表现形式有三种:

Chinese tea ceremony is presented in three ways:

1.煎茶:把茶末投入壶中和水一块煎煮。唐代的煎茶,是茶的最早艺术品尝形式。

1. Tea-cooking: Put tea into the pot filled with water and cook it. Tea cooking in Tang Dynasty was the earliest indication of the art of tea tasting.

2.斗茶:古代文人雅士各携带茶与水,通过比茶面汤花和品尝鉴赏茶汤以定优劣的一种品茶艺术。斗茶又称为茗战,兴于唐代末,盛于宋代。最先流行于福建建州一带。斗茶是古代品茶艺术的最高表现形式。

2. Tea competition: Tea competition is a tea tasting in which scholars in ancient times brought their own tea and water, for judging good and bad quality teas by checking the shape of tea leaves in the water and tastes of tea soup. Tea competition is also called tea rivalry, which started at the end of Tang Dynasty, and became popular first in the area of Jianzhou, Fujian Province in Song Dynasty. Tea competition was the best way of showing the art of tea in ancient times.

3.功夫茶:清代至今某些地区流行的功夫茶是唐、宋以来品茶艺术的流风余韵。清代功夫茶流行于福建的汀州、漳州、泉州和广东的潮州。功夫茶讲究品饮功夫。

Kung Fu Tea: Started in Qing Dynasty, Gong Fu Tea remains popular in some areas and shows the trace of art of tea dating back to Tang and Song Dynasty. In Qing Dynasty, Kung Fu Tea was popular in areas like Tingzhou, Zhangzhou, Quanzhou, Fujian Province, and Chaozhuo, Guangdong Province. Kung Fu Tea focuses on the skills of tea drinking and tasting.

茶文化还要遵循一定的法则。例如,宋代讲究“三点”与“三不点”品茶。“三点”为新茶、甘泉、洁器为一,天气好为一,风流儒雅、气味相投的佳客为一。“三不点”为茶不新、泉不甘、器不洁,是为一不;景色不好,为一不;品茶者缺乏教养举止粗鲁又为一不,共为三不。碰到这种情况,最好是不作艺术的品饮,以免败兴。

In tea culture, some principles should be followed. For example, people in Song Dynasty followed the rules of “three ‘Yes’” and” three ‘No’s” in tea tasting. The “three ‘Yes’” made the tea suitable for drinking: the tea is fresh, the tea water is sweet and pure and the tea- wares are clean; weather should be fine; people with good manners and sharing the same interests. While “the three ‘No’s” referred to: tea not being new, the tea water not being sweet and pure; the scenery is not beautiful; and people have no manners and are rude. In those cases, it is better not to have the tea tasting and drinking.